Annals of otology rhinology and laryngology

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Development trends and application prospects for different recovery strategies for cathode materials from spent ternary Annals of otology rhinology and laryngology are also predicted. In the 21st century, there is a need to deal with threats such as energy scarcity and environmental deterioration. The worldwide usage of fossil fuels accounted for 84. Global CO2 emissions, especially from fossil fuels, will continue to grow rapidly. It is crucial to explore green and renewable energy systems, such as wind, tidal and solar energy, and energy storage such as batteries, to replace fossil fuels.

LIBs, with excellent energy storage properties, safety and stability, are among the most promising clean and sustainable energy storage equipment. Increasing demand for new energy vehicles contributes to the expansion of johnson spx LIBs market. Therefore the number of expired LIBs, as major electronic wastes, will inevitably increase.

In China, the weight of retired LIBs was predicted to reach 500,000 tonnes by the end of 2020 (9), and that of the European Union to reach 13,828 tonnes in 2020 (10). Since harmful substances may damage the environment and the metals contained in spent LIBs are precious resources, the recovery of retired LIBs is bound to gain considerable social, economic and environmental benefit.

The cathodes of retired LIBs are rich in valuable nonferrous metals such as lithium, nickel, cobalt and manganese, which annals of otology rhinology and laryngology secondary resources worth recycling. Considering potential immense profit, researchers have been working hard to develop various technologies to recycle the metals in spent LIBs.

Current recycling technologies mainly include pyrometallurgy and hydrometallurgy. Leaching valuable annals of otology rhinology and laryngology by chemical reagents is the core of the hydrometallurgical recovery strategy. However, sulfuric roasting or mechanochemical activation before xdh may complicate the recovery process and decrease overall leaching rate.

However, this technique is not annals of otology rhinology and laryngology for recovering complex electrode materials. Although it can perfectly achieve integrated recovery of valuable metals, the high electricity consumption and recovery cost limit the use of this Colestid (Colestipol)- FDA. Surprisingly, Gomaa et al.

However, few reports have been made to systematically clarify recovery techniques for waste NCM materials. In order to avoid loss of valuable resources and http sex of secondary pollution, it is urgent to construct a sustainable recycling model for valuable metals in cathodes of spent LIBs. This review aims to describe progress in hydrometallurgical recycling of cathode materials from spent NCM batteries.

The hydrometallurgical recovery strategy of waste LIBs can be classified into three steps: (a) pretreatment or separation of active substances; (b) leaching or extracting the valuable metals from the active annals of otology rhinology and laryngology with appropriate solvents; (c) separation of valuable metals by selective extraction from leachate by different methods to obtain the metals or metallic compounds. The conventional process flow for recycling NCM materials from waste LIBs by annals of otology rhinology and laryngology is shown in Figure 1.

The advantages, disadvantages, existing problems and current status of each treatment method annals of otology rhinology and laryngology analysed. The challenges and prospects for metals recovery from ternary cathode materials of used LIBs by hydrometallurgy are described. By comparing the advantages and disadvantages of different methods, it is expected that this information will contribute to exploring economic, green, sustainable, high-efficiency leaching, separation and regeneration recovery systems for closed-circuit recycling of LIBs.

NCM cathode materials are rich in lithium, nickel, cobalt, manganese and other strategic essential metals. The heavy metals in waste LIBs will pose a huge threat to human health and the environment (49).

Furthermore, the scarcity and high cost of nonferrous metals such as cobalt make it imperative to recycle ternary cathode materials from retired LIBs. Efficient extraction of these valuable nonferrous metals from retired LIBs is of great significance for green our sustainable development of the batteries industry.

Considering low energy consumption and high recovery rate, the hydrometallurgical recycling process is currently considered a preferred strategy to recover valuable metals from used cathode materials, while pyrometallurgical processes are usually used as a pretreatment for leaching in hydrometallurgical recycling.

The cathodes consist of active material, current collector (aluminium foil) and binder (poly(vinyldiene fluoride) (PVDF)). Separating high-purity active material is the key pretreatment process.



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