OsmoPrep (Sodium Phosphate Monobasic Monohydrate and Sodium Phosphate Dibasic Anhydrous)- FDA

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Javascript is currently disabled in your browser. The above percentage of manuscripts have been rejected in the last 12 months. In this study, we used A6K, a self-assembling surfactant-like peptide, as a carrier to encapsulate and deliver hydrophobic pyrene. Methods: Pyrene was mixed with A6K by magnetic stirring to form a suspension.

Confocal OsmoPrep (Sodium Phosphate Monobasic Monohydrate and Sodium Phosphate Dibasic Anhydrous)- FDA scanning microscopy, transmission electron microscopy, dynamic light scattering, atomic force microscopy, fluorescence, and cell uptake measurements were carried out to study the features cpr resus stability of the nanostructures, the state and content of pyrene, as well as the pyrene release profile.

Results: The suspension formed contained pyrene monomers trapped in the hydrophobic cores of the micellar nanofibers formed by A6K, as well as nanosized pyrene crystals wrapped up and stabilized by the nanofibers. The two different encapsulation methods greatly increased the concentration of pyrene in the suspension, and formation of pyrene crystals wrapped up by A6K nanofibers might be the major contributor to this effect.

Furthermore, the suspension system could readily release and transfer pyrene into living cells. Conclusion: A6K could be further exploited as a promising delivery system for hydrophobic drugs. Keywords: pyrene, self-assembling peptide, micelles, nanofibers, drug deliveryIn the list of popular pharmaceutical chemicals, there are many important hydrophobic drugs, such as doxorubicin and paclitaxel for cancer chemotherapy and propofol for general anesthesia.

Although basically effective, these drugs have poor solubility in aqueous solution, which has always been a drawback limiting the development of more available and effective formulations. For this reason, much research has been conducted to increase the solubility and thus the bioavailability of these hydrophobic drugs.

Surfactant-like peptide is a type of self-assembling peptide designed by mimicking the structure of traditional surfactant. When first introduced about 10 years ago, A6K and other surfactant-like peptides were observed to form bilayered nanovesicles and nanotubes, which were expected to be potential carriers for biological molecules. Recently, our group found that, when directly dissolved in pure water, A6K could form micellar nanofibers with a hydrophobic core and a very high aspect ratio,37 indicating that it should be investigated as a possible delivery system for hydrophobic drugs.

Pyrene is a well-studied molecule with strong hydrophobicity and characterized fluorescence, making it a perfect model molecule for the investigation of delivery systems for hydrophobic drugs. The nanostructures of pyrene-A6K complex were studied, and then the content and fluorescence properties of encapsulated pyrene were analyzed. Finally, novo jornal release profile of the pyrene-A6K complex was also investigated.

Lyophilized peptide powder was dissolved in sterilized Milli-Q water to obtain A6K solution with a concentration of 5 mM. Exceeded amount of pyrene (about 5 mg) was put into 5 mL of A6K solution or Milli-Q water and stirred magnetically for 6 hours. The obtained mixture of A6K and pyrene was kept in the dark for 4 days to precipitate large particles and obtain a stable upper suspension that was used for further investigations. To study the effect of peptide concentration, the A6K solution was diluted to 1 mM or 0.

All treatments were carried out at room temperature. Based on the fluorescence of pyrene, confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) (A1Si, Nikon, Tokyo, Japan) was used to observe possible pyrene-containing structures in the suspension and the supernatant. Ten microliters of each sample was dropped onto a clean glass slide and a cover glass slip was put on it to form a thin layer of liquid. OsmoPrep (Sodium Phosphate Monobasic Monohydrate and Sodium Phosphate Dibasic Anhydrous)- FDA sample was then observed using CLSM with an excitation wavelength of 405 nm.

To observe the detailed nanostructures in the suspension and the supernatant by transmission electron microscopy (TEM), a copper grid covered with carbon film was put on the surface of a small drop of suspension or supernatant to absorb a certain amount of sample on it, which was then negatively stained with phosphotungstic acid for about 2 minutes.

After air-drying, the sample was observed with TEM (Tecnai G2 F20, FEI, Hillsboro, OR, USA). Dynamic light scattering (DLS) was used to detect the size distribution of the nanoparticles in the suspension and the supernatant.

Intensity data were collected as a size-versus-fraction distribution plot using a Zetasizer Nano-ZS instrument (Malvern Instruments, Malvern, UK), with water (refractive index 1. In order to keep their original states, both samples were measured without further treatment. The concentration of pyrene in the suspension and supernatant was determined by monitoring the I1 fluorescence peak at 374 nm. A calibration curve was constructed by measuring the I1 fluorescence values of a series of standard pyrene solutions dissolved in ethanol (Supplementary data, Figure S1).

Both the suspension and supernatant were appropriately diluted with ethanol and the fluorescence value at 374 nm was measured to calculate the concentration. In order to study the stability of the A6K nanostructures, atomic force microscopy (AFM; SPA400, SII Nanotechnology, Inc.

Five microliters of 5 mM A6K solution was dropped onto a freshly cleaved mica surface and left for about 5 seconds. The droplet was then pipetted away and the mica surface was gently rinsed with 3 mL of Milli-Q water.

After air-drying, the mica surface was scanned by AFM to obtain topological information about the attached nanostructures.

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