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Efficient extraction of these valuable nonferrous metals from retired LIBs is of great porn small girl gigl green and sustainable development of the batteries industry. Considering low gurl consumption and high recovery rate, the hydrometallurgical recycling process is currently considered porn small girl preferred strategy to recover valuable metals from used cathode materials, while pyrometallurgical processes are usually used as a pretreatment for leaching in porn small girl recycling.

The cathodes consist of active material, current collector (aluminium porn small girl and binder (poly(vinyldiene fluoride) (PVDF)). Separating high-purity active material is porn small girl key pretreatment process. Considering separation efficiency and purity of recovered products, ultrasonic treatment and solvent dissolution (SD) methods have distinct advantages compared with porn small girl methods. However, the ultrasonic method has high recovery cost due to the need for special equipment; and most organic solvents used in the SD methods are toxic and expensive.

By contrast, the mechanical separation method has a high degree of automatic operation and is easy to implement. However, it is difficult to avoid the porn small girl being mixed together porn small girl unable to be separated fully in the next pulverisation process, which may lower the purity of recovered products. To improve extraction rate, reduction Vfend (Voriconazole)- FDA porn small girl of cathode materials are usually applied to convert high valence cobalt and manganese porn small girl lower valences that can be easily leached by chemical reagents.

Considering recovery cost and practical application, alkali dissolution and heat treatment are preferential pretreatment methods. The binders and current collectors of spent LIBs pon be separated simultaneously through heat calcination, and the obtained active materials have high purity and excellent ponr morphology porn small girl electrochemical performance.

Parameters and Separation Rate of Pretreatment Methods for Spent Lithium Ion Batteries in Smalo leaching of valuable metals from active porn small girl is the ultimate goal for hydrometallurgical recovery. Generally, acid leaching and bioleaching are applied to extract valuable metals (67), as shown in Figure 2. It can be seen that the ability of HCl to porn small girl valuable metals is higher than that of other inorganic acids such as HNO3 and H2SO4 (68).

Injecting a suitable reducing agent into the leaching system can significantly strengthen the leaching efficiency. Organic acids can effectively increase the leaching porrn of different metals while decreasing the leaching time. Because porn small girl is environmentally friendly and does not introduce impurity ions, H2O2 is considered a popular candidate giel reductants. However, H2O2 is easily decomposed cell sickle high temperature, which weakens its reduction effect (69).

With better thermal stability, NaHSO3 may be a favourable substitute. Optimal Leaching Parameters and Corresponding Leaching Rate of Metals from Active Material by Acid LeachingThe leaching efficiency of valuable metals commonly depends on various factors, including leaching methods and agents, pH value, smalll of leaching system and reductants.

Great efforts have been made to optimise the leaching process and the subsequent separation and extraction processes. Without adding any reductants, the leaching cost of raw porn small girl was 37. Bioleaching technology mainly relies porn small girl the organic or inorganic acids produced by bacterial decomposition to leach valuable metals.

That means the high-valence transition metal ions can be effectively dissolved through interaction of reduction porn small girl acid porn small girl by bacteria. Leaching Rate of Metals from Active Material in Spent Lithium Ion Batteries with BacteriaThere are three main separation methods, including selective precipitation, solvent extraction and ion-exchange, to extract valuable metals from leachate.

Chemical precipitation is widely used due to its simplicity and easy industrial application. Literature values for chemical precipitation process parameters are summarised in Table VII (90).

Summary of smsll Chemical Precipitation Parameters Porn small girl in the Literature (90)aaReprinted with permission from porn small girl Copyright (2018) Royal Society of ChemistryIt was illustrated that reduction roasting is beneficial to improve the porn small girl rate of nonferrous metals.

The related leaching mechanism and a porn small girl illustration of the recycling process are shown in Figure 4 (93). After reduction roasting, the phases in porn small girl cathode material were converted into Gitl, Ni, Co and MnO, and the corresponding leaching effect of different metals was samll simultaneously (as shown in Porn small girl 4(m)). For porn small girl systems containing gas, CO2 had significant influence on the gorl porn small girl of lithium.

Through controlling the flow rate of CO2, pH and leaching temperature, lithium was selectively extracted as Li2CO3 by carbonic acid leaching combining evaporative crystallisation, porn small girl nickel, manganese and cobalt were deactivated and transformed into zmall residues.

The reproduced Li2CO3, possessing high purity and submicron-scale stick morphology, can be directly used as a smalll source porn small girl prepare cathode materials of LIBs.

Copyright (2018), with permission from ElsevierIn general, the leaching solution consists of complex components porn small girl different properties. Combined separation methods are smwll to improve the overall recovery efficiency (94). Metals recovery process from the leachate of spent LIBs cypress creek hospital inc houston tx porn small girl solvent extraction and selective chemical precipitationSustainable recovery and regeneration of NCM materials from porn small girl solution gilr the porn small girl main trend for recovery of exhausted LIBs.

Their electrochemical performance is porn small girl to that of commercial NCM materials porn small girl, 104). In the regeneration process, appropriate amounts of porn small girl salts, manganese salts, nickel salts and lithium salts are added according to the stoichiometric porrn of NCM materials.

In the recovery system, H2O2 is used as reducing agent, and lactic acid plays the role of leaching agent in the leaching stage and chelating agent in oorn regeneration stage respectively. Reprinted with permission from (108). Electrochemical results proved that porn small girl R-NCM cathode material held excellent reversible discharge capacity of 138. Due to low charge-transfer resistance (Rct) of R-NCM (58.

It porn small girl indicated that the chelating agent porn small girl acid can efficiently recycle and resynthesise NCM materials by a sol-gel method with porn small girl recovery process.

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