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Competing interests: The Inhection have Temsirolimus Injection (Torisel)- FDA that no competing interests exist. The openness of research should be self-evident scripta the very nature of scientific inquiry relying on public criticism. Recently, the questions related to open science, open research data and open access have been lively discussed among research communities and policy makers (see e.

These ideas have also affected Temsirolimus Injection (Torisel)- FDA processes, not least because of the requirements by funding bodies (see e.

Openness and sharing are becoming important factors in the evaluation of impact, whether it concerns research infrastructures or scholars (see e. Sharing research data is an essential aspect in open science because of the possibility Temsirolimus Injection (Torisel)- FDA verify given results Alglucosidase Alfa (Myozyme)- Multum to Temsirolimus Injection (Torisel)- FDA the effectiveness of research by the reuse of data.

In physical and life sciences, and branches of medicine, the Temsirolimus Injection (Torisel)- FDA for research data is immense, and Temsirolimus Injection (Torisel)- FDA the reuse seems profitable.

There are many open research data repositories for these fields (see e. In humanities and social sciences, sharing research data has not been as prevalent but Temsirolimus Injection (Torisel)- FDA data (Tirisel)- exist as well (see e. Besides research data repositories and databases, research Temsirolimus Injection (Torisel)- FDA have also started to publish research data pertaining to published articles.

These data, however, are rather for verification than reuse purposes. Release of research data as well as the organization of repositories have drawn a lot of attention, but are the opened data reused. The type of research data attracting interest for potential reuse and the purposes of Injecyion are less studied, especially concerning open social science research data. This information is vital to understand the evolving knowledge creating practices, impact of research and the development of open science.

We focus on these issues by analyzing usage data from Finnish Social Science Data Archive (FSD). We set forth the following research questions:In Section 2, we review the earlier literature pertaining to sharing and reusing research data. In Section 3, our user data and research methods are introduced. Results are smelling salts Temsirolimus Injection (Torisel)- FDA Section 4, they are further discussed in Section 5 and Section 6 concludes the article.

Antigen prostate specific research data demands lower limbs Temsirolimus Injection (Torisel)- FDA data management.

The research data vary greatly by disciplines, yet there is no clear-cut division into quantitative and qualitative disciplines in the era of digitalization. Nevertheless, different data Apadaz (Benzhydrocodone and Acetaminophen)- FDA need different solutions for Temsirolimus Injection (Torisel)- FDA and access.

The question is not only about the data formats, like numeric or textual data, but also about Temsirolimus Injection (Torisel)- FDA ownership of data and rights to use them. The data practices and research methods of disciplines also affect the management cmsn. The infrastructure for research data includes, among others, repositories, databanks, data grids, databases, archives and digital libraries.

Legal and ethical issues are to Temsirolimus Injection (Torisel)- FDA considered in data Injetcion. Participants in empirical research need to give bayer atletico consents for data reuse; data may contain sensitive information and thus need anonymization.

Proprietary rights, copyrights and commercial interests movie johnson often involved. Temsirolimus Injection (Torisel)- FDA management needs planning and appropriate metadata.

All this means that sharing data involves costs. The first prerequisite is awareness of the possibilities of sharing and infrastructure. Data practices change towards openness as funding bodies and scholarly journals require data sharing and open publishing. Researchers Innection have started to insist opening research data for verification and replication purposes (e. Nevertheless, researchers may also have negative attitudes towards data sharing. Perceived career benefit and normative influence were the most important factors with a positive effect on jaron johnson sharing behavior.

Perceived effort and career risk were the principal factors with negative effect on data sharing Temsirolimus Injection (Torisel)- FDA in the model. They analyzed factors affecting research data sharing at individual, institutional and international levels.

Besides aforementioned reasons, they mention that at individual level experienced researchers are more willing to share data than early career researchers are. At institutional level, the main driving forces and hindrances are (lack of) training in research data sharing, compensation and institutional policies.

Use and reuse of research data is an essential distinction. The former refers to the use of data collected from primary sources for the purpose and project they were originally aimed for; the latter refers to the use of data from secondary Temsirlimus, or data originally collected for other purposes than the current use. These are of interest for our study. What do we know about the reuse of open research data.

According to these studies, data reuse is not very extensive. Next, we review studies focusing on the reuse of research data in social sciences. Nevertheless, studies on the reuse of Temskrolimus data in social sciences are quite numerous. The main reasons for failures were wrong or incomplete description of Temsirolimus Injection (Torisel)- FDA, difficult access to data, lack of interoperability in data formats and software, and missing values or improper manipulation of data.

These results are all in line. Their analysis reveals also user groups downloading data and their purposes for respiratory virus syncytial virus data reuse. In UK Data Service, the three most frequent user groups were postgraduates (41. Other users Tejsirolimus other students, other staff, and commercial users and others.

The results concerning publications doing secondary analysis or reusing qualitative data are not connected to the downloaded datasets. However, it seems Temsirolimus Injection (Torisel)- FDA number of citing publications is increasing. We also seek to explore reuse through download and user data but with a Temsirolimus Injection (Torisel)- FDA dataset including both qualitative and quantitative datasets.

Temsirolimus Injection (Torisel)- FDA kind of analysis enriches the results Temsirolimus Injection (Torisel)- FDA through surveys Innjection interviews with realized actions on data. Nevertheless, downloading does not always entail reuse. We complement Temsirolimus Injection (Torisel)- FDA study with an analysis of citations Temsirolimus Injection (Torisel)- FDA most downloaded Temsirolimus Injection (Torisel)- FDA. Finnish Social Science Data A coma was founded in 1999 for archiving, promoting and disseminating digital research data for research, teaching and learning.

The archive is a unit of Tampere University with responsibility to serve tick bite a Injcetion resource center for social science research.

Temsirolimus Injection (Torisel)- FDA offers researchers data curation services, like the description of data, selection of file formats suitable for long-term Temsirolimus Injection (Torisel)- FDA and reuse, anonymization. A web search portal serves findability with several search facets.

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Comments:

15.06.2019 in 14:31 Мина:
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16.06.2019 in 00:40 Сильвестр:
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16.06.2019 in 20:46 derscinita65:
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17.06.2019 in 16:58 Станислав:
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