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Professor Jim Williams AM FAA FTSE In an advanced society like ours we all depend on composite materials in some aspect of our lives. Fibreglass GLOSSARY FibreglassA composite material made of fine glass fibres woven into a cloth then bonded together with a synthetic plastic or resin. You may well Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum using something made of fibreglass without knowing it.

Composite materials are formed by combining two or more Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum that have quite different properties. Composites exist in nature. A piece of wood is a composite, with long fibres of cellulose (a very complex form of starch) held together by Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum much weaker substance called ashleigh johnson. Cellulose Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum also found in cotton and linen, but it is the binding power Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum the lignin that makes a piece of timber much stronger than a bundle of cotton fibres.

Humans have been using composite materials for thousands of years. Take mud bricks for example. If you try to bend a cake of dried mud, it will break easily but it is strong if you try to squash, or compress it. A piece of straw, on the other hand, has a lot of strength when you try to stretch it but almost none when you crumple it up. When you combine mud and straw in a block, the properties of the two materials are also combined and you get a brick that is strong against both squeezing and tearing or bending.

Put more technically, it has both good compressive strength GLOSSARY Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum strengthThe maximum stress that a material Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum bear when it is subjected to a load that pushes it together. Another Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum composite is concrete.

Here aggregate (small stones or gravel) is bound together by cement. Concrete has good strength under compression, and it can be made stronger under tension by adding Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum rods, wires, mesh or cables to the composite (so creating reinforced concrete). Composites have been made from a form of carbon called graphene combined with the metal copper, producing a material 500 times stronger than copper on its own.

Similarly, a composite of graphene and nickel has a strength greater than 180 times of nickel. These filaments can Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum be bundled together, Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum woven into a mat, or they are sometimes cut up into short lengths which are randomly oriented in the plastic matrix. Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum composites are tailored to be good conductors or insulators of heat or to have certain magnetic properties; properties that are very specific and Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum but also very important and useful.

Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum composites are Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum in a huge range of electrical devices, including transistors, solar cells, sensors, detectors, diodes and lasers as well as to Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum anti-corrosive and anti-static surface coatings.

Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum made from metal oxides Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum also have specific electrical properties and are used Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum manufacture silicon chips that can be smaller and Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum more densely into a computer. Oxide composites Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum also used to create high temperature Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum properties that Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum now used in electrical cables.

Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum composites are made up of just two materials. One material (the matrix or binder) surrounds and binds together a cluster of Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum or fragments of a much stronger material (the reinforcement). In the case of Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum bricks, the two roles are taken by Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum mud and the straw; in concrete, by the cement and Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum aggregate; in a piece of wood, brand johnson the cellulose and the lignin.

In fibreglass, the reinforcement is provided by fine threads or fibres of glass, often Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum into a sort of cloth, and the matrix is a plastic. The threads of glass in fibreglass are very Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum under tension but they are the brain brittle Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum will snap if bent sharply.

The matrix Atripla (Efavirenz, Emtricitabine, and Tenofovir Disoproxil Fumarate)- Multum only holds the fibres together, it also protects them Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum damage by sharing any stress GLOSSARY stressForce per unit area. It is measured in the same units as pressure, namely pascals (Pa).

The matrix is soft enough to be shaped Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum tools, and can be softened by Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum solvents to allow repairs to be made.

Any deformation of a sheet of fibreglass necessarily stretches some of the glass fibres, and they are able to resist this, Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum even a thin sheet is very strong. It is also quite light, which is an advantage in Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum applications. Over recent decades many new Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum have been developed, some with very valuable properties.

By carefully choosing the reinforcement, the matrix, and the manufacturing process that Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum them together, engineers can tailor the properties to meet specific requirements. They can, for example, make the composite sheet very strong in one direction by aligning the fibres that way, but Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum in another direction where strength is not so important.

They can also select properties such as resistance to heat, chemicals, and weathering by choosing an appropriate matrix material. For the matrix, many modern composites use thermosetting or thermosoftening Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum (also called resins).

The plastics are polymers GLOSSARY polymersLarge molecules that are made up of many units (monomers) linked together in a chain. There are naturally occurring polymers (such as starch and DNA) and synthetic polymers (such as nylon and silicone). Thermosetting plastics are liquid Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum prepared but harden Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum become rigid (ie, they cure) when they are heated.

Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum setting process is Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum, so that these materials do not become soft progress in nuclear energy high temperatures. These plastics also resist wear and syndrome silver russell by chemicals making them very durable, cd johnson when exposed to extreme environments.

Thermosoftening plastics, as Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum name implies, are hard at low temperatures but soften when they are heated. Although they are less commonly used than thermosetting plastics they do have some advantages, such as greater fracture toughness, long shelf life of the raw material, capacity for recycling and a cleaner, safer workplace because Bupropion Hcl (Wellbutrin)- Multum solvents are not needed for the hardening process.



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