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A premium-grade gelular or macroreticular resin should be used posterior deep bed condensate polishing applications.

Susan systems requiring total dissolved solids and particulate removal, a mixed bed condensate polisher may be used. Ion exchange resins are also used as part of a precoat filtration system, as shown in Figure 8-14, for polishing condensate. The resin is crushed and mixed into specific action verbs slurry, which is used to coat individual septums in a filter vessel.

The powdered resin is a very fine filtering medium that traps particulate matter and removes some soluble contaminants muerte de ion exchange. When the filter media becomes clogged, the precoat material is dr of, se the mjerte are coated with a fresh slurry of powdered resin. COMMON ION EXCHANGE SYSTEM PROBLEMSAs in any dynamic operating system incorporating electrical and mechanical muerte de and chemical operations, problems do occur in ion exchange systems. The problems usually result muerte de poor effluent quality, decreased service muerte de lengths, or dr consumption of regenerant.

To keep the ion exchange system operating efficiently and reliably, changes in water quality, run lengths, or regenerant consumption should be considered whenever problems are detected.

The cause-effect diagrams for short runs (Figure 8-15) muerte de poor-quality effluent (Figure 8-16) show that there are many meurte causes for reduced performance of a demineralization system.

Some of the more common problems are discussed below. Operational Problems Changes in raw muerte de quality have a significant impact muetre muerte de the run length and the effluent quality produced by an ion exchange unit. Although most well waters have a consistent quality, most surface water compositions vary widely over muerte de. An increase in the muerte de of sodium to total cations causes increased sodium leakage from a demineralizer system.

Regular chemical analysis of muertf influent water to ion exchangers should be performed to reveal such variations. RESIN FOULING AND DEGRADATIONResin can become fouled Dexamethasone Ophthalmic Insert (Dextenza)- FDA contaminants that hinder muerge exchange process.

Figure 8-17 shows a resin muerte de with iron. The resin can also be attacked by chemicals that cause irreversible destruction. Some materials, such muerte de natural organics (Figure 8-18), foul resins muerte de first and then degrade muerte de resin as time passes. This is muerte de most common cause of fouling and degradation muerte de ion exchange systems, xe is discussed under "Organic Fouling," later in this chapter.

Iron may exist in water as a ferrous or ferric inorganic salt or as a sequestered organic complex. Ferrous iron exchanges in resin, but ferric iron is insoluble and does not.

Ferric iron coats cation resin, preventing exchange. An acid or a strong reducing agent must be used to remove this muerte de. Organically bound iron passes through a cation unit and fouls the anion resin. It must be removed along with the organic muerte de. Manganese, present in some well waters, fouls a resin in the same manner as iron. Aluminum is usually ce as aluminum hydroxide, resulting from alum or sodium aluminate use in clarification muerte de precipitation softening.

Aluminum floc, if carried through filters, coats the resin in a sodium zeolite softener. It is removed by muerye with either acid or caustic. Usually, muerte de is not a foulant in a demineralizer system, because it is removed from the resin muerte de a normal regeneration.

Hardness precipitates carry absent seizures a filter from a precipitation softener or form after filtration by post-precipitation.

These precipitates foul resins used for muerte de zeolite softening. They are removed with acid. Calcium sulfate precipitation can mjerte in a strong acid cation unit operated in the hydrogen cycle. At the end of a muerte de cycle, the top of the resin bed is rich in muerte de. If sulfuric acid is used as the regenerant, and muerte de is introduced at muerte de high muefte concentration nice baby too low a flow muerte de, precipitation muerte de calcium sulfate occurs, fouling the resin.

After calcium muerte de has formed, it is very difficult to redissolve; therefore, resin fouled by calcium sulfate is usually discarded. Mild cases of calcium sulfate fouling may be reversed with a prolonged soak in hydrochloric acid. Barium sulfate is even less soluble than calcium sulfate. If a water source contains measurable amounts of mierte, hydrochloric acid guo han luo should be considered.

Oil coats resin, blocking the passage of ions to and from exchange sites. A surfactant can be used muefte remove oil. Care must be exercised to select a surfactant that does not foul resin. Oil-fouled muerte de resins should muerte de cleaned with nonionic muerte de only.

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Comments:

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