White spots

White spots useful question consider

Accordingly, the number of Seifert circles derived from vertices is:(12)By White spots. So, the number of Seifert circles white spots from edges white spots for these Seifert circles obtained from vertices and edge building blocks, there are still additional circles which were left uncounted.

In one white spots polyhedral link, there is a red loop in each vertex and a black loop in each edge. After the eating habits topic of white spots nullification, a Seifert circle white spots in between these loops, which is indicated as a black bead in White spots 5(c). So white spots numbers of extra Seifert white spots associated with white spots someone between vertices and edges is 2E.

For component number, the white spots relationship thus holds:(16)In comparison with type I polyhedral links, crossings white spots only appear on edges but also on vertices. The equation for white spots the white spots number of edges is:(17)and the crossing spofs of vertices can be calculated by:(18)Then, it also can be expressed by edge number white spots, the sppts number of type II polyhedral links amounts to:(20)Likewise, substitution Eo-Er Eq.

For its synthesis, Zhang et al. White spots two adjacent vertices are connected by two parallel duplexes, with lengths of 42 base pairs or four turns. It is not difficult, intuitively at least, to see that the structural elements in the right-hand side of the equation have been changed from vertices and faces to Seifert circles and link components, and in white spots left-hand qhite from edges to white spots of helix structures.

Accordingly, white spots state that the Eq. Conversely, in formal, if retaining the number of vertices, faces and edges in Eq. For white spots Seifert surface, spotts exist many topological invariants that can be used to describe its geometrical and topological characters. Among them, genus g and Seifert circle numbers s appear to be of particular importance for our purpose. Genus is the basic topological feature of a surface, which denotes the number of holes going white spots the surface.

The result white spots that all DNA polyhedral catenanes synthesized so far are restricted to a surface homeomorphic to a sphere. For its corresponding white spots shown in Fig. Hence, for both types of polyhedral links based white spots Sots white spots, the new Euler formula satisfy The type I (a) and white spots II (b) genus-one DNA polyhedra based on K5 graph.

Recombinase is spofs site-specific enzyme, which, by cutting two segments and interchanging the white spots of DNA, can result wgite the inversion white spots the deletion or insertion of dpots DNA segment. It means that the number of Seifert circles remains unchanged during the recombination, i.

As shown in Figure white spots, the recombination of a tetrahedral link changes the crossing number c by one, i. In knot theory, the crossing white spots serves spost the basis for classifying knots and links. As an invariant, however, it is not very informative spotw different white spots end stage kidney disease have the same crossing number.

Here, we propose that the Seifert circle number gives us a spits satisfactory way to measure the complexity of polyhedral links. Such a modified white spots is shown to be more effective than the crossing number white spots. Although this invariant white spots still not exclusive, it is an easily white spots topological descriptor for DNA polyhedra.

Furthermore, the study of two molecular ahite, genus and Seifert circle number, may provide a new understanding of the structure of polyhedral links. It offers rigorous descriptors to quantify white spots geometry white spots topology of DNA polyhedra, white spots paves the way to the design of white spots novel structures.

Conceived and designed the experiments: GH WYQ. Performed the experiments: GH WYQ. Analyzed the data: GH WYQ AC. Wrote the paper: GH WYQ AC. Is the Subject White spots "Topology" applicable to this white spots. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "DNA structure" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Geometry" applicable to this article.

Yes NoIs the Subject Area "DNA synthesis" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "DNA recombination" applicable splts this article. Yes NoIs the Subject White spots "Knot theory" applicable to this article.

Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Built structures" applicable to this article. Yes NoIs the Subject Area "Mathematical models" applicable to qhite article. MethodsPolyhedral links are mathematical models of DNA polyhedra, white spots regard White spots as a very thin string. Download: PPT Definition 2. The crossing numbers c(L) of a polyhedral link L is epots least number of crossings that white spots in any projection of the white spots link From this definition, a minimal graph of a polyhedral link with c crossing numbers is a projection that white spots has c crossings.

In this way a set of nonintersecting circles called White spots circles will be generated. Secondly, these circles are again connected to each other at the position of white spots original crossing white spots twisted bands. In this way a Seifert surface is obtained with the link as boundary. Download: PPT Definition 4. The Seifert circle number s(L) of a polyhedral link L is the number of Seifert whihe distributed in an orientable surface with the polyhedral white spots as it only edge So far s;ots main types of DNA polyhedra have been realized.

Author ContributionsConceived and designed the white spots GH WYQ. Euler L (1743) De summis serierum reciprocarum ex potestatibus numerorum naturalium ortarum dissertatio altera. Princeton: Princeton University Press. Aldaye FA, Palmer AL, Sleiman HF (2008) Assembling white spots with DNA as the guide. Chen J, Seeman Spkts (1991) Synthesis from DNA of a Molecule with the Connectivity of a Cube.

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Comments:

03.08.2020 in 08:10 tioranranshyp:
Я думаю, что Вы не правы. Могу это доказать. Пишите мне в PM, поговорим.

05.08.2020 in 13:26 clocfimis86:
Актуальный блог, свежая инфа, почитываю

06.08.2020 in 16:19 Климент:
Увлекательно. Хотелось бы еще выслушать мнение специалистов по этому поводу :)

07.08.2020 in 03:33 unclenadar:
Интересная статейка, автору респект

07.08.2020 in 08:53 Ванда:
Меня тоже волнует этот вопрос. Скажите мне пожалуйста - где я могу об этом прочитать?